Complexity of systems are increasing day by day. This leads to more and more vulnerabilities in Systems. Attackers use these
vulnerabilities to exploit the victim’s system. It is better to find out these vulnerabilities in advance before attacker do. The power
of Vulnerability assessment is usually underestimated. While Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing can be used as a
cyber-defence technology to provide proactive cyber defence. In this paper we proved Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration
Testing (VAPT) as a Cyber defence technology, how we can provide active cyber defence using Vulnerability Assessment and
Penetration Testing. We described complete life cycle of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing on systems or
networks and proactive action taken to resolve that vulnerability and stop possible attack. In this paper we have described
prevalent Vulnerability assessment techniques and some famous premium/open source VAPT tools. We have described complete
process of how to use Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing as a powerful Cyber Defence Technology.
Use of computers are increasing day by day. System’s complexity is increasing. Most of the systems now are
connected to Internet. New and complex Software are coming in the market. All these activities are increasing
vulnerabilities in systems.
A vulnerability is a weakness in the application which can be an implementation bug or a design flaw that
allows an attacker to cause harm to the user of the application and get extra privilege1
. Vulnerability are the
potential risk for the system. Attacker uses these vulnerability to exploit the system and get unauthorized access
Vulnerabilities are big flaw in system security and Information assurance. A vulnerability free system can
provide more Information Assurance and system security. Though it is almost impossible to have 100%
vulnerability free system, but by removing as many vulnerabilities as possible, we can increase system security.
The need of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing is usually underestimated till now. It is just
consider as a formality activity and use by very less people. By using regular and efficient Vulnerability
Assessment, we can reduce substantial amount of risk to be attacked and have more secured systems.
In this paper we describe Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing as an important Cyber Defence
Technology. By using VAPT as a Cyber Defence Technology we can remove vulnerabilities from our system and
reduce possibility of cyber-attack. We explained various techniques of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration
Testing. We described complete life cycle of VAPT for proactive defence. This will also provide complete
process how to use VAPT as a cyber-defence technology.
Much research have been done by researcher in past in Vulnerability Assessment. Ivan Krsul2 shows that
computer vulnerability information shows important regularities and those can also be detected and possibly
visualized. Steven E Noel3 et al. find out the interdependency of multiple vulnerabilities and exploits in a single
network and their effects. Stefan Kals4 et al. show a web vulnerability scanner tool ’SecuBat’ developed by them.
Sushil Jajodia5 and Steven Noel described a Topological Vulnerability Analysis approach. This analyses
vulnerability interdependencies and possible attack path into a computer network. Christopher Kruegel6 et al.
present comprehensive study of “Execution after Redirect” Vulnerabilities.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives brief introduction of VAPT. Section 3 describes
complete life cycle of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing. In Section 4, we describes various
prevalent VAPT techniques. In Section 5 we have listed TOP 15 premium/open source VAPT tools. In section 6
we describe how we can use VAPT as an effective Cyber defence technology. Finally Section 7 concludes the
paper and describe future work.
2. Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing
Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing is a step by step process. Vulnerability assessment is the
process of scanning the system or software or a network to find out the weakness and loophole in that. These
loopholes can provide backdoor to attacker to attack the victim. A system may have access control vulnerability,
Boundary condition vulnerability, Input validation vulnerability, Authentication Vulnerabilities, Configuration
Weakness Vulnerabilities, and Exception Handling Vulnerabilities etc.
Penetration testing is the next step after vulnerability assessment. Penetration testing is to try to exploit the
system in authorized manner to find out the possible exploits in the system. In penetration testing, the tester have
authority to do penetration testing and he intently exploit the system and find out possible exploits.
3. Life cycle of VAPT
Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing is a total 9 step process7 8. These steps are shown in Fig.
First of all tester have to decide the scope of the assignment (Black/grey/white box). After deciding the scope, the
tester gets information about the operating system, network, and IP address in reconnaissance step. After this tester
use various vulnerability assessment technique (explained further) on the testing object to find out vulnerabilities.
Then tester analyses the founded vulnerability and make plan for penetration testing. Tester uses this plan to
penetrate the victim’s system. After penetrating the system, tester increases the privilege in the system. In result
analysis step, tester analyses the all results and devise recommendation to resolve the vulnerability from the system.
All these activities are documented and sent to management to take suitable action. After these all step, the victim’s
system and its program get affected and altered. In cleanup step we restore the system in previous state as it was
before VAPT process was started.
fig. Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing Life cycle
4. Vulnerability Assessment & penetration testing techniques
4.1. Vulnerability Assessment technique
In this section we described some popular VAPT techniques9
4.1.1. Static analysis
In this technique we do not execute any test case or exploit. We analyze the code structure and contents of the
system. With this technique we can find out about all type of vulnerabilities. In this technique we do not exploit system, so there would be no bad effect of this testing on the system. One of the big disadvantage of this technique is
that it is quite slow and require many men-hours to perform.
4.1.2. Manual Testing
In this technique, we do not require any tool or any software to find out vulnerabilities. In this tester use his own
knowledge and experience to find out the vulnerabilities in the system. This testing can be perform with prepared
test plan (Systematic manual testing) or without any test plan (Exploratory manual testing). This technique costs
cheaper compare to other techniques, because we do not need to buy any vulnerability assessment tool for this
4.1.3. Automated Testing
In automated testing technique we use automated vulnerability testing tools to find out vulnerabilities in the
system. These tools execute all the test cases to find out vulnerabilities. This reduce the men-hours and time
required to perform testing. Because of tool repeated testing can also be perform very easily.
Automated testing provide better accuracy than what other techniques provide. It takes very less time and same
test cases can be used for future operations. But tools increase cost of testing. A single tools is not capable to find
out all type of vulnerabilities. So this increase the total cost to perform vulnerability assessment.
4.1.4. Fuzz testing
This is also known as fuzzing. In this we inputs invalid or any Random Data into system and then look for crashes
and failure. This is like robustness testing. This technique can be applied with very less human interaction. This
technique can be used to find out zero day vulnerability.
4.2. Penetration testing techniques
4.1.5. Black box testing
In this technique, the tester do not have any prior knowledge of the network architecture or systems of the testing
network. Usually black box testing is perform from external network to internal network. Tester have to use his
expertise and skills to perform this testing.
4.1.6. Grey box testing
In this technique, the tester have some partial knowledge of the testing network. Tester do not have knowledge of
complete network architecture, but he know some basic information of testing network and system configuration.
Actually Grey box testing is the combination of both the other techniques. This can be perform from internal or
4.1.7. White box testing
Tester have complete knowledge of the network configuration of the testing network and the system
configuration of the testing network/system. Usually this testing is perform from the internal network. White box
testing require deep understanding of the testing network or system and gives better results.
5. Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing Tools
There are many open source/premium VAPT tools10 available in the market. Every tool have its expertise and
limitation. In Table 1 we have listed Top 15 VAPT tools, their usage and the operating system on which they are
compatible. These make VAPT process fast and more accurate to assess and exploit vulnerability.
Table 1. Top 15 VAPT tools.
NO. Name License Type Operating System
1 Metasploit Proprietary Vulnerability scanner and exploit Cross-platform
2 Nessus Proprietary Vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
3 Kali Linux GPL Collection of various tools Linux
4 Burp Suite Proprietary web vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
5 w3af GPL web vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
6 OpenVAS GPL Vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
7 Paros proxy GPL web vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
8 Core Impact Proprietary Vulnerability scanner and exploit Windows
9 Nexpose Proprietary Entire vulnerability management lifecycle Linux, Windows
10 GFI LanGuard Proprietary Vulnerability scanner Windows
11 Acunetix WVS Proprietary web vulnerability scanner Windows
12 QualysGuard Proprietary Vulnerability scanner Cross-platform
13 MBSA Freeware Vulnerability scanner Windows
14 AppScan Proprietary web vulnerability scanner Windows
15 Canvas Proprietary Vulnerability scanner and exploit Cross-platform
6. VAPT as a Cyber defence technology
In this section we will show how we can consider vulnerability analysis as a cyber-defence technology. What
usually attacker do is he reconnaissance the victim’s network and get information about victim’s network. After
getting information, attacker perform vulnerability assessment on the victim’s network/system and get vulnerability
list. This is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Vulnerability Assessment by attacker
After getting the vulnerability list of the victim, the attacker make a plan for the possible attack. With that list
attacker exploit the victim’s network or system and compromise his system security and information. This is shown
in Fig. 3. But if Victim removes all the vulnerabilities from his system, the attacker would not be able to exploit the
victim’s network/system. By applying VAPT technique user can find out the vulnerabilities those can result in
various severe attacks like – DDoS attack, RA flooding, ARP poisoning etc. After finding out the vulnerabilities user
can apply countermeasures11 12 against them. To make the system vulnerability free, Administrator should find out
vulnerabilities in his own system/network. The administrator should apply complete vulnerability and penetration
testing cycle on the system/network. When the administrator would get the list of available vulnerability in his
system, he should remove those vulnerabilities. To remove the vulnerabilities, the administrator should apply the
necessary patches, updates, install necessary software and other requisite. In this way administrator would remove
all vulnerabilities from his system/network.
Fig. 3. Attacker exploiting victim’s system
Now if the attacker would do vulnerability assessment of the victim’s system/network, he would not find any
open vulnerability in the victim’s system/network. In absence of open vulnerabilities in the system, the attacker
would not able to exploit victim’s system/network. So by using Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing as
a cyber- defence technology administrator can be able to save his resources and critical information and can achieve
proactive cyber defence.
7. Conclusion and Future Work
In this paper we explained how Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing can be used as an effective
cyber defence technology. We described why VAPT should be made a compulsory activity for cyber defence. We
explained complete life cycle of VAPT, prevalent VAPT techniques and top 15 vulnerability assessment tools. This
paper provide complete overview of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing, and its use as a cyber-
defence technology. This paper clearly explain necessity to increase use of VAPT for complete system security. This
paper would be very helpful for future researchers to get complete knowledge of VAPT process, tools, techniques
and its use as a cyber-defence technology. It would be helpful to develop new VAPT techniques and tools. This
paper state VAPT as a powerful Cyber defence technology. Compulsory VAPT testing can stop cyber-attack cases
and provide strengthen system security.